首页 笔记

摘要部分

先写正文再写摘要
结构&语言

杂谈

目的 aimed at, aimed to, to..., presents, be designed to
根据xxx  based on, using...
结果xxx  did/may support(加助动加强化语气)
results indicated that
Interesting <= of great interest
problem <=> issue

摘要结构

Background
principal Purpose

  • 目的
  • 观点

Methods

  • 计算测量方法
  • 实验过程

Results and discussion

  • 研究结果(比较别人的)
  • 论证

Conclusions

  • 结论
  • 推论

(BPMRC)

时态

  • 背景:一般现在、现在完成(可先扬后抑)
  • 目的:一般现在时
  • 方法:过去时(实验)、现在时(方法)(被动)
  • 结果:过去时(实验结果承接)、现在时(最终结果)(被动)
  • 推论:现在时(情态动词may/might)

语态

主动60%、被动40%
被动较多(集中信息于主语)
It was said that
It was reported
News come to people
Reports come to people
This paper explore

修辞

力求简捷

数据解释:直接数字+单位
the results shows

修饰语顺序

adj>n>v-ing

少用of

常用词汇语法点

背景

review, describe, be fundamental to, effect

目的

  • 显性 explicit
    名词:purpose, aim, objective, goal
    动词:aim, attempt to, initiate, intend to, seek, present, be designed to

  • 隐性 implicit
    动词:explore, investigate, deal with, present(提出)

练习
本文尝试从...角度定义...
This paper attempts to define ... in terms of  ...
本研究旨在找出...与...之间的基本相似点
This research is aimed to find the base similarity of ... and ...
我们调查的主要目的获得...的一些知识
Our investigationis is to acquire the knowledge of ...

研究方法

动词:
算:calculate, measure, work out, estimate,
测:sample(取样), examine(调查、检验), perform, experiment( on)
句式:A number of experiments were performed to ...
用:use, apply, application
(方向:otientation,direction

(观点表达)

(embrace an opinion)

结果和讨论

  • 结果
    现象:show, measure, (in/decrease, in/decline, as/descend, climb up/down, rise/fall, go up/reduce), (arrive at, appear to be, equal, be identical to)
    (修饰语:(rapidly, dramatically, drastically),(steadily, moderately), (slightly, minutely, ))
    推导:as a result

  • 讨论
    confirm, demonstrate, indicate, point out, identify, provide a sound basis for, are fully consistent with(与之前的观察完全吻合), lend strong empirical support to(对xxx假设提供了佐证)

结论和推论

  • 结论 conslusion
    conclude, summary, to sum up, in conclusion(可用We,主观)

  • 推论 prospect
    be likely to, tend to, could serve as

正文

拟定提纲框架

  • 为什么(引言)Introduction/overview
  • 如何(实验)experiments
  • 结果(结果)results
  • 意义、与众不同之处(讨论)discussion
  • 优缺点分析(结论)conclusion
    (IERDC)

具体框架

    • Problem description(引言)
    • Problem analysis(问题分析)
    • models and hypothesis(模型假设)
    • definitions and symbols(定义符号)
    • model design and solution(模型设计)
    • model analysis and test(模型分析试验)
    • model evaluation(评估)

引言Introduction

  • 背景Setting
    大范围-->小范围阐释


    表达
    近年来:Recently, For the past few years
    直到最近:until quite recently
    近十年来:During the past decade
    前几年:In the previous years
    随后几年:In the subsequent years
    1990s初/中/末:early/mid/late 1990s
    早在:as early as
    直到:as late as
    自...以来:since
    ... has received considerable attention.
    related to
    associated with
    A growing number of
    grow in intensity
    begin to accumulate

  • 局限性(必要性)N
    积极-->承接-->消极


    积极:Confirm, prove to be
    消极:Unclear, impratical, not yet
    承接:Although, thouroughly Investigation
    However/While/Nevertheless/whereas

  • 目的


    Give rise to
    Drawback

  • 价值


    may be useful
    may suggest

研究方法(Methods)

What - 所用材料/模型/假设
How - 处理过程
Data - 数据结果
Compare - 比较
Hypothesis - 假设
Definition - 定义/符号

What
采用:employ、adopt
运用:use、apply
提出:present、be developed
检验:examine
How
完成:carry out
做:perform
按照:follow
Data
提供:supply
获得:obtain
准备:prepare
包含:include, comprise, contain, consist of, be made up of, be composed of
be shown in Fig. 2
Seen from Fig. 2
In Fig. 2
做(实验):conduct
比较:differ from, in comparison to
假设:Hypothesis

结果(Results)

  • 结果介绍(数据描述)
    Results of the test are presented in Fig.1
    Table 1 summarizes the test

  • 结果重点描述
    significant, considerable, remarkable

  • 结果评述
    总结-->比较


    总结:suggest
    比较:
    agree well with
    fit well
    be equal to
    be identical to
    match with ... well
    be consistent with

讨论(Discussion)

回顾-->评述

回顾:目的(显性隐性)、假设、结果
评述:suggest, prove...

结论(Conclusion)

总结-->评价(优缺点)-->展望(应用类的)
conclusion
be possible to, may
more importantly
provide a firm basis on future application

常见问题(Error Analysis)

  1. 逗号叠加
  2. 不要用A lot of
  3. Above只能指代上一段
  4. Apparently
  5. Assume as (X) --> Assume to be (√)
  6. Based on
  7. Belong 私人所有意义上的“属于”
  8. Conclusion (少用Give,换State)
  9. Anymore 换为 No longer
  10. Prove 过强



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